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Ultrasonic cleaning is a highly effective and efficient method for cleaning a wide range of objects, from jewelry and electronic components to medical instruments and industrial parts. This process utilizes high-frequency sound waves to generate tiny, rapid bubbles in a liquid cleaning solution, which then agitate and remove contaminants from the surfaces of the items being cleaned. In this explanation, I will delve into the principles, components, applications, advantages, and limitations of ultrasonic cleaning.


Principles of Ultrasonic Cleaning:


Ultrasonic cleaning operates on the principle of cavitation. Cavitation is the formation, growth, and implosion of microscopic bubbles (cavities) within a liquid when subjected to high-frequency sound waves. These bubbles generate intense localized pressure and temperature changes during their implosion, creating powerful shock waves and microjets. This dynamic process effectively dislodges and lifts contaminants from surfaces.


The main steps in ultrasonic cleaning can be summarized as follows:


  1. Transducer Emission: Ultrasonic cleaning systems consist of a transducer, which converts electrical energy into high-frequency sound waves. The transducer is usually mounted on the bottom of a tank or chamber filled with a cleaning solution.
  2. Sound Wave Propagation: The transducer emits high-frequency sound waves (typically in the range of 20 to 40 kHz) into the cleaning solution. These sound waves propagate as pressure waves through the liquid.
  3. Cavitation Bubble Formation: The sound waves cause alternating cycles of compression and rarefaction in the liquid. During the rarefaction phase, small vacuum bubbles or cavities form due to low pressure. These bubbles grow as the rarefaction continues.
  4. Cavitation Bubble Collapse: Eventually, these bubbles reach a critical size, causing them to rapidly collapse during the compression phase. The implosion of these bubbles creates localized shock waves and microjets with immense energy.
  5. Contaminant Removal: The shock waves and microjets generated during cavitation bubble collapse physically agitate and dislodge contaminants, such as dirt, grease, oils, and other particles, from the surfaces of the objects being cleaned.
  6. Contaminant Dispersion: The dislodged contaminants become suspended in the cleaning solution, allowing them to be carried away from the cleaned surfaces.
  7. Rinse and Drain: After the cleaning cycle is complete, the items are typically rinsed to remove any remaining cleaning solution and contaminants. The cleaning solution can be filtered and reused, and the items are then allowed to dry.

Components of an Ultrasonic Cleaning System:


Ultrasonic cleaning systems consist of several key components, each playing a crucial role in the overall cleaning process:


  1. Transducer: The transducer is the heart of the ultrasonic cleaning system. It converts electrical energy into mechanical vibrations by using piezoelectric crystals or magnetostrictive materials. These vibrations create the high-frequency sound waves that initiate cavitation.
  2. Tank or Chamber: The tank or chamber holds the cleaning solution and the objects to be cleaned. The transducer is often located at the bottom of this container to ensure even distribution of ultrasonic energy.
  3. Cleaning Solution: The cleaning solution is a crucial component in ultrasonic cleaning. It is carefully chosen based on the type of contaminants to be removed and the material of the objects being cleaned. The solution can be water-based or solvent-based, and it often contains detergents or surfactants to enhance cleaning efficiency.
  4. Temperature Control: Some ultrasonic cleaning systems include a temperature control mechanism to maintain the solution at a specific temperature. This can be important for optimizing the cleaning process, as some cleaning solutions work more effectively at elevated temperatures.
  5. Generator or Power Supply: The generator or power supply provides the electrical energy needed to drive the transducer and produce the ultrasonic waves. It allows operators to control the frequency and intensity of the sound waves.
  6. Timer and Controls: Ultrasonic cleaning systems typically feature timers and controls to allow users to set the duration of the cleaning cycle and adjust the power levels as needed.

Applications of Ultrasonic Cleaning:


Ultrasonic cleaning is utilized across a wide range of industries and applications due to its effectiveness and precision. Here are some common uses:


  1. Jewelry and Watches: Ultrasonic cleaners are often used to remove dirt, oils, and grime from jewelry, watches, and precious metals. The gentle yet thorough cleaning process helps restore the shine and luster of these items.
  2. Electronics: Ultrasonic cleaning is employed in the electronics industry to clean delicate components such as printed circuit boards (PCBs), connectors, and sensors. It can remove solder flux residues and other contaminants without damaging sensitive electronic parts.
  3. Medical and Dental Instruments: Medical and dental instruments, including surgical tools, dental instruments, and endoscopes, are cleaned and disinfected using ultrasonic cleaners. The precision of the cleaning process is vital for preventing infections and ensuring instrument longevity.
  4. Aerospace and Automotive Parts: Ultrasonic cleaning is used in the aerospace and automotive industries to clean engine components, fuel injectors, and other critical parts. It can remove carbon deposits, oils, and other contaminants that can affect performance.
  5. Optical Lenses and Eyewear: Camera lenses, eyeglasses, and other optical components benefit from ultrasonic cleaning, which can remove smudges, fingerprints, and dust without scratching delicate surfaces.
  6. Firearm Cleaning: Firearms and gun parts can be thoroughly cleaned and degreased using ultrasonic cleaning, ensuring their reliability and performance.
  7. Laboratory Glassware: Ultrasonic cleaning is a standard practice in laboratories to clean glassware and other equipment used in experiments and analyses. It eliminates residues, contaminants, and residues that might affect research results.
  8. Coins and Collectibles: Collectors often use ultrasonic cleaning to restore and clean coins, antiques, and collectibles without damaging their integrity or value.
  9. Food Processing Equipment: In the food industry, ultrasonic cleaning can effectively remove grease, residues, and contaminants from food processing equipment to maintain hygiene and safety standards.
  10. Musical Instruments: Brass and woodwind instruments can be cleaned using ultrasonic cleaners to remove accumulated grime and debris from hard-to-reach areas.

Advantages of Ultrasonic Cleaning:


Ultrasonic cleaning offers several advantages over traditional cleaning methods:


  1. Efficiency: Ultrasonic cleaning is highly efficient, often reducing cleaning times and improving results compared to manual or other automated methods.
  2. Thorough Cleaning: The process reaches intricate and hard-to-reach areas, ensuring thorough cleaning without the need for disassembly.
  3. Gentle on Objects: Ultrasonic cleaning is gentle on delicate items, as it does not involve abrasive scrubbing or harsh chemicals, minimizing the risk of damage.
  4. Consistency: It provides consistent and repeatable cleaning results, as the ultrasonic energy is evenly distributed across the cleaning solution.
  5. Environmental Friendliness: Ultrasonic cleaning is often more environmentally friendly than other cleaning methods, as it can use biodegradable cleaning solutions and reduce the need for chemical usage.
  6. Reduced Labor: The automated nature of ultrasonic cleaning reduces the need for manual labor, making it a cost-effective solution.

Limitations of Ultrasonic Cleaning:


While ultrasonic cleaning is a powerful and versatile method, it also has some limitations:


  1. Material Compatibility: Not all materials can be cleaned using ultrasonic methods. Some fragile or porous materials may be damaged by the intense cavitation process.
  2. Contaminant Compatibility: The effectiveness of ultrasonic cleaning depends on the type of contaminants present. Certain substances, such as heavy rust or dried-on residues, may not be effectively removed.
  3. Cost: Ultrasonic cleaning equipment can be expensive to purchase and maintain, making it less practical for small-scale or occasional use.
  4. Safety Concerns: Ultrasonic cleaning solutions may contain chemicals that require proper handling and disposal. Safety measures should be followed to protect operators and the environment.
  5. Limited to Immersible Objects: Ultrasonic cleaning is most effective for objects that can be fully immersed in the cleaning solution. Large or complex items may pose challenges.
  6. Noise: The high-frequency sound waves can generate noise, which might be a concern in some environments. Ear protection may be necessary for operators.

In conclusion, ultrasonic cleaning is a highly effective and versatile method for removing contaminants from a wide range of objects and surfaces. Its principles, components, applications, advantages, and limitations are essential factors to consider when choosing this cleaning method for various industries and cleaning tasks. Whether you're cleaning delicate jewelry, intricate electronic components, or heavy-duty industrial parts, ultrasonic cleaning offers a powerful and efficient solution that continues to find applications in diverse fields.


Contact us for any projects requring Ultrasonic cleaning.

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Shot Blasting with Aluminum Oxide

Shot blasting with aluminum oxide is a widely used surface preparation and finishing technique that offers several advantages and disadvantages. In this comprehensive overview, we will delve into the pros and cons of using aluminum oxide for shot blasting, providing insights into its various applications and considerations.


Pros of Shot Blasting with Aluminum Oxide:

  • Effective Surface Cleaning: Aluminum oxide is an excellent abrasive material that effectively removes contaminants, rust, paint, and other surface impurities. It leaves surfaces clean and ready for further treatment or coating.


  • Highly Abrasive: Aluminum oxide is a hard and tough abrasive, making it suitable for a wide range of applications. It can efficiently remove even stubborn coatings and rust.


  • Surface Roughening: Shot blasting with aluminum oxide creates a textured or roughened surface profile. This is beneficial for applications like paint or coating adhesion, as the rough surface provides better mechanical bonding.


  • Versatility: Aluminum oxide is suitable for various substrates, including metal, concrete, and some plastics. It can be used in diverse industries, such as automotive, aerospace, construction, and manufacturing.


  • Reusable: Aluminum oxide abrasives can often be recycled and reused, reducing overall material costs and environmental impact.


  • Speed and Efficiency: Shot blasting with aluminum oxide is a relatively fast and efficient process, allowing for high production rates.


  • Consistency: It provides consistent results across a treated surface, ensuring uniformity and quality in surface preparation.


  • Durability: Aluminum oxide abrasives maintain their abrasive properties for a long time, reducing the need for frequent replacement.


  • Environmentally Friendly: Compared to some other abrasive materials, aluminum oxide is considered more environmentally friendly due to its recyclability and lower levels of hazardous byproducts.


  • Surface Restoration: Shot blasting can be used to restore surfaces by removing old coatings, corrosion, and other defects, extending the life of equipment and structures.

Cons of Shot Blasting with Aluminum Oxide:

  • Dust and Debris: Shot blasting generates a significant amount of dust and debris, which can be a health hazard to workers and require effective dust collection systems.


  • Environmental Impact: While aluminum oxide is more environmentally friendly than some other abrasives, its production still has environmental impacts, and disposal of used abrasives must be managed properly.


  • Equipment Costs: Shot blasting machines and equipment can be expensive to purchase and maintain, making it a significant initial investment.


  • Operator Skill: Proper training and skill are required to operate shot blasting equipment effectively and safely.


  • Surface Profile Control: Achieving the desired surface profile can be challenging, as it depends on factors like abrasive size, equipment settings, and operator expertise.


  • Limited Precision: Shot blasting is not suitable for precision work, as it can be difficult to control the depth of material removal accurately.


  • Substrate Damage: Inexperienced operators or improper equipment settings can result in substrate damage, especially on delicate surfaces.


  • Noise Pollution: Shot blasting machines can produce high levels of noise, requiring hearing protection for operators and considerations for nearby workers and residents.


  • Consumable Costs: While aluminum oxide abrasives are durable, they are still consumables, and their cost can add up over time, especially for large-scale projects.


  • Surface Contamination: If not properly cleaned, residues of aluminum oxide abrasive may remain on the treated surface, potentially causing issues in subsequent processes or applications.

In summary, shot blasting with aluminum oxide offers numerous advantages, such as effective surface cleaning, versatility, and environmental benefits. However, it also comes with challenges, including dust management, equipment costs, and the need for skilled operators. The choice to use aluminum oxide for shot blasting should consider the specific application requirements, cost considerations, and environmental impact, as well as the importance of proper safety measures to protect workers and the environment.

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Mass finishing processes can effectively remove rust from metal surfaces through a combination of mechanical action, abrasive media, and specialized compounds.  Here are five ways in which mass finishing can assist with the removal of rust.


Image of finished polished metal pieces.


Abrasive Action – The primary mechanism in mass finishing for rust removal is abrasive action.   Abrasive media, such as steel, ceramic, plastic or organic are used to physically abrade the rusted surfaces of the metal parts.   As the media circulates within the mass finishing machine, they come into contact with the rust, effectively wearing it away.  This abrasion process helps to loosen and remove the rust from the surface.  Vibratory finishing, U-Tub and barrel tumbling are excellent examples of this type of rust removal.


Media Impact – the impact of the abrasive media against the rusted surfaces can dislodge loose rust particles and help break up thicker rust formations. For example, with shot blasting, the continuous collision of the steel media with the parts create a consistent and controlled abrasion, eliminating rust and giving a uniform finish to the metal part.


Compound Assistance - Compounds or additives can be added to the mass finishing process to enhance rust removal.  Rust inhibitors and specialized cleaning compounds can help dissolve or loosen rust, making it easier for the abrasive media to remove the rust, as well as inhibiting the formation of new rust during and after the process.  Ultrasonic cleaning using the proper chemicals can remove rust without the use of a media, especially useful for delicate parts.


Surface Polishing – While the primary goal is rust removal, mass finishing processes often have the additional benefit of polishing the surfaces.  Any pitting caused by the rust can be blended out, resulting in a cleaner and shinier appearance.


Coverage and Consistency – Mass finishing ensures uniform rust removal across all parts being processed.  The continuous movement of the parts and media helps to ensure that all surface areas of each part are exposed to the abrasive action, leaving no untreated spots.  Selecting the proper media and compound can also assist with hard to reach places, or internal bores and chambers.


It's important to select the appropriate combination of media, compounds, equipment and process parameters to achieve effective rust removal while avoiding over-processing or damaging the parts. 

Many factors play a role in the removal of rust.  The severity of the rust, the type of metal, the media chosen, the compounds chosen, the equipment as well as the duration of the process.

Latem Industries has been removing rust for our valued customers for over 45 years, in fact, it is something we excel at.  Latem offers quick turnaround and extensive experience in this field.  Let us assist you in getting rid of annoying rust.

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Abrasive blast is a popular method of industrial surface finishing that works by shooting powerful streams of abrasive materials at a surface of a part.  This is done to strengthen the part or to break down the outer layer to reveal the clean layer underneath. Because all three are abrasive techniques, they often get mistakenly interchanged.  The following will show the differences between these three processes.


shot peening example


Sandblasting equipment uses water or compressed air to bombard the part with a media at high speeds.  The media originally used was Silica sand, hence the name Sandblasting.  But due to respiratory health issues, this has since been replaced by organic media or glass.  Although this method uses media at high speeds, the speed is not as high as shot blasting or peening.  Therefore, sandblasting is commonly used on more fragile materials, such as wood, plastic and glass.




Shot-blasting equipment is special equipment that often uses centrifugal force to blast a part with media.  The media is fed into centrifugal wheel which propels the media at the surface of the part. The shot is then sifted and the good shot is returned via elevator back into the centrifugal wheel to again be propelled at the surface of the part.  Dust collectors remove the dust and used shot.   The media used is steel shot or grit, or aluminum oxide.  Shot-blasting uses higher speeds than sandblasting, so it can be much more abrasive.  It is excellent at removing rust, imperfections and paint, as well as being used for edge-breaking and as a creating an excellent surface finish for painting, coating, or powder coating.  There are also shot-blasting equipment that used compressed air and nozzles for a more direct or focused blast.  These machines usually use an aluminum oxide media.


Shot Peening equipment is the same as shot blasting.  It is similar to shot blasting, differing slightly in the process and in the end result. While blasting relies on an abrasive process to chip away minute pieces of the product, shot peening relies more on the mechanism of plasticity. Each particle acts as a ball-peen hammer. The goal of shot peening, more often than not, is to replace tensile stress with compressive stress, therefore strengthening the part.  Medias used include aluminum oxide or steel grit/shot.


Latem Industries Limited offers both Shot Peening and Shot-blasting.  We have been in the industry for over 45 years, and have great experience and knowledge, as well as a highly trained staff.  Let us assist you with your blasting and peening needs.


Contact us for find out more.






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WW2 brought about some new uses for then-recent discoveries.  From atom bombs to mass production of penicillin (for use on soldiers), changes were afoot.  One of the items to become popular was plastisol. 



Plastisol, invented around 1910, was originally used as a cover for shock absorbers.  But due to the shortage of natural rubber during World War II, it started being used as a wire insulation material and a covering for many different items such as tool grips of cutters and pliers.  Now 60 years later, plastisol can be seen everywhere.

Plastisol is used in the medical field for tubing and nasal cannulas.  Plumbing taps, tubes, elbows and hangers are often dipped in plastisol.  Electrical wires and boxes are dipped in plastisol.  Many tools, from pliers, cutters, wrenches and even baby spoons are seen dipped in plastisol.  Automotive parts, marine parts, aerospace parts, farm equipment…the list goes on and on.


Plastisol coating is a combination of PVC in a plasticizer and stabilizer to make it into a thick, pliable liquid.    Flame retardants, colors, textures, antimicrobials, etc., can be added to enhance the product.  An item is then preheated, dipped in the plastisol and then cured.  Or it can be poured into a mold to make an outer coating, cap or plug.  Once cured, the coating is both sturdy and somewhat flexible.   


Plastisol coating is renowned for extreme corrosion resistance, but there is much more to it than that.  It is a tough coating, with a soft feel.  It can offer flame retardant ability and anti-microbial protection as well as electrical insulation.  Plastisol is often applied to components as a preventative measure to reduce wear or eliminate rattling.


At Latem Industries Limited, we make plastisol and apply plastisol.   Whether you need us to do the work, or you have your own equipment and are looking for a plastisol supplier, give us a try.

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Sample of Vibratory Finishing

Mass finishing has been around for over 50 years and yet it remains one of the most under-appreciated technologies, as well as one of the least-understood.  Some circles view it as a simplistic/low-tech and due to this, do not put the time and effort into finding the proper equipment and/or process, resulting in scrap, rework, higher finishing costs, and overall disappointment.


Thinking it is an “easy” process, many companies will try and incorporate the process in-house.  How hard can it be, right?  You put parts in a vibratory bowl, or a barrel tumbler, throw in some media…the internet says ceramic is a good idea, so we’ll throw that in…and let ‘er run.  When the parts don’t come out as expected, the process takes way too long to be efficient, or the process doesn’t appear to be repeatable, “they” conclude that mass finishing is over-rated.


What “they” don’t understand is that it is in fact a multifaceted system, incorporating each specific item and working perfectly together to reach a predetermined end goal.  Let’s take a deeper look at how each item assists in reaching the end goal.

Determining what equipment is required is the first step.  Incorrectly sized equipment could end up damaging the parts or damaging the machine itself.  You need to determine the ratio of parts to media, and ensure the machine is large enough to hold the media and parts, as well as to properly move the parts through the machine. Is the equipment and motor large enough to handle the load?  Is it large enough to prevent part on part damage? Are we getting the throughput required to be efficient? Is it too large; resulting in inefficiencies and increased costs? Is the “worn” media removal method capable for the part and media being ran?


Media selection is another vital cog in the production.  Media will determine your surface finish.  Are you looking to remove a burr or to polish? What type of metal or base is the part you are looking to finish?  Metal and plastics all have different hardness and require different medias. Too abrasive of media could damage your parts; too soft of media will wear too quickly or make the process too long. Complex geometries of parts need be considered.  Will the media shape or size reach all areas required?  Will the media break or become lodged in a part?  Can the media and part be separated during offload?

Water is another key factor.  Water works as a coolant and in conjunction with a compound, flushes out the residue removed from the part as well as the worn media.  How much water?  Not enough, and the media and parts will remain dirty. Too much and you are wasting compound and increasing costs.  Water cannot be too hard nor too soft. What materials are you introducing to your wastewater?  These need to be considered and accounted for. 


Compounds are the final piece to the puzzle.  Compounds are used to assist in deburring, dissolving dirt and grease, to assist in keeping the media clean as well as to provide corrosion resistance.  Which compound is required and what ration to water and to parts is essential.

sample of tumbled parts

As you can see, the process is much more complex than most realize.  Using the proper machine, media and water/compound are essential to surface finishing.  The smarter option is usually to not “re-invent” the wheel.  Rather than trying to put in your own system and experiencing the disappointment of many, give Latem Industries Limited a try.


Mass finishing has come a long way over the last 50 years.  Today, mass-finishing systems can produce practically any surface finish, from simple deburring to high-gloss polishing, on practically any kind of workpiece.

 Latem Industries Limited has been in this industry for over 45 years perfecting finishing solutions.  Give us a chance to help you with your surface finishing needs.

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Mass Finishing - Centrifugal

Mass finishing, in its most basic definition, is the same as individual parts finishing, using many of the same methods, just in mass quantities.  When metal is worked to form a shape, whether it be through laser cutting, waterjet procedures, stampings or any other of the numerous ways to shape metal, it usually comes out of the process with sharp edges, exhibiting oil or stains, surface scale , rust, as well as other defects.  The metal part has to then be either sanded, filed, washed, etc. to prepare it for its next stage, be it welding, coating or assembly.


Finished parts


This stage can be very expensive due to the individual handling and processing of the metal parts.  This is where mass finishing comes into play.  The goal of mass finishing is to deburr, edge-break, burnish, radius, descale, clean, de-flash, rust removal, polish, brighten or even harden the surface, but to do it in mass, to reduce the cost expenditure per part. 


Mass Finishing can be done in different machines, but usually involves compounds and media.  Compounds are used to remove stains and rust as well as to brighten parts or remove scale.    Media is used to remove burrs, remove scale, refine surfaces as well as buffer parts from one another.  Media can be plastic, metal or organic.


Several factors will determine which machine, media and compound is used.  Certain compounds will not work with certain metals.  The correct compounds can assist with the process required, lessening cycle times.  Improper sized media can become trapped in part weld joints or holes, where as improper shaped media can degrade faster or not reach into required areas.   Different machines work differently as well.


Vibratory: Vibratory mass finishing systems come in a few different configurations, including bowl designs, oval race-track designs, u-tubs as well as continuous flow through machines. Parts travel through the machine, media, compound and usually water wearing down the edges, scale, etc.  This process is much like how small rocks, sand and water wear down jagged rocks over time.

Centrifugal: Centrifugal finishing is also known as tumble or barrel finishing. Centrifugal machines lend themselves well to efficiency and automation. They operate at speeds over 300 revolutions per minute, with the bonus of no part-on-part contact. These machines achieve this by generating centrifugal force, which keeps the parts at the barrel’s periphery.  This process is also extremely efficient at polishing parts as the media gently wears on the outer surface.   With the correct media and compounds, mirror surfaces can be attained.  This process also can be used quite effectively on 3D part’s imperfections.


Latem Industries Limited has been mass finishing for over 40 years.  We would love an opportunity to assist you with your mass finishing requirements.

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Polyamide 11 (PA 11), sometimes referred to as Nylon 11, is a non-biodegradable, polyamide bioplastic which is derived from vegetable oil. These renewable raw materials are also free of heavy pigments. This substance protects metal substrates like aluminum and steel, combating corrosion, abrasion, and impact-related damage. On top of being an overall “robust” coating, nylon 11 is also very good in regard to chemical and corrosion resistance.  It can be applied via electrostatic spray or by dipping in a fluidized bed.   Many companies choose nylon 11 powder coatings because they contribute a glossy, even finish to metal components, making these parts more visually appealing.  It is extremely durable and has an array of thermoplastic characteristics.  Marine industries relish the fact that Nylon 11 has proven very resistant to corrosion from sea water…some tests preventing corrosion for up to 20 years.  Although not as good as Teflon, it does have a low coefficient of friction and is not affected by UV deterioration.  Automotive, among other industries, also use nylon as a sound reducer against squeaks and rattles.


Hydrogen Molecule


Due to the many benefits of Nylon 11, it is used in many industries, including:


  • Automotive – due to its corrosion and scratch resistance, as well as appearance and sound reducing capabilities, it is used on clamps, brackets, connectors, brake lines, wire forms among many others
  • Medical – due to its hygienic properties it is used on such items as: catheters, forceps, defib paddles
  • Architectural – fences, railings, handles
  • Agriculture – attachments, tools, hangers
  • Marine – dock products, impellors, housings. fishing equipment
  • Industrial – Wire forms, hangers, pulleys, rollers, fans
  • Oil and Gas – underwater pipes and brackets
  • Wire Products – shelving, dishwasher racks, bra clips

Nylon 11 offers many benefits in many industries:

  • Chemical defense: Nylon coatings protect metals against chemical contamination, including ozone, salt spray, solvents, ultraviolet (UV) rays and hydrocarbons.
  • Impact resistance: According to Charpy impact tests, nylon coatings demonstrate exceptional resistance at both low and room temperatures, meaning they can absorb impact energy without breaking.
  • Prolonged life cycle: Nylon coatings for metal are weather-resistant, giving them a long-lasting service life.
  • Hygienic surface: This coating is widely used for drinking water applications due to its hygienic properties.
  • Abrasion resistance: Due to their high abrasion resistance, nylon coatings project a smooth and even surface finish.
  • Mechanical durability: Nylon 11 is mechanically tough, with high burst strength across an extensive temperature range.

Because of its impact and abrasion resistance, its chemical defense as well as its hygienic properties Nylon 11 has many uses as a metal coating.  Latem Industries Limited has been applying Nylon 11 for well over 15 years with outstanding results.


Interested in more information on Nylon 11?  Contact Latem Industries Limited for any questions you may have.  We will be happy to assist. 


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What is Mill Scale?

Mill scale is the flaky surface that forms on hot-rolled steel.  It is a by-product of manufacturing hot-rolled metal plates and sheets, occurring as the surface oxidizes during the heating, conditioning and hot-rolling processes.  It usually has a bluish-black appearance and can be flaky or powdery.  Due to its non-uniform texture and thickness, mill scale chips easily.


Why is Mill Scale Undesirable?


Mill scale can cause issues with next-stage processes.  Coatings you apply will chip off as the scale peels off.  Mill scale can also affect welding.  The scale behaves as a thermal and electrical insulator. Steel is a natural thermal and electrical conductor.  Therefore, by acting as an insulator, the scale diminishes puddle fluidity and creates arc instability.  Also, the impurities found in the scale, such as oxygen, can release into the steel.  This leads to increased porosity which will weaken the joint.


Removing Mill Scale from Iron or Stainless Steel?


Metal manufacturers know that shot blasting can strengthen, polish, and clean metal. It is also excellent at removing mill scale.  It is fast and cost-efficient.  In addition to removing the mill scale, the valleys and peaks created by the blast process increase surface area for the coating to adhere to.   We can apply a water based rust inhibitor that will protect the part from oxidization but will not impede welding. 


Latem Industries offers a diverse line of blasting equipment which includes monorail, tumble blast, conveyor and swing table to meet your blasting needs.  A variety of shot sizes also allows us to best suit your requirements.


So whether you require scale removal, shot peening, white metal cleaning, rust removal, casting deflashing, or a uniform finish, give Latem a chance to show you what we can do.


For further information on shot blasting, or to request a quote, please contact us or visit our webpage at


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What is Isotropic Finishing?

In the mass finishing world, isotropic finishing refers to a component’s surface showing little or no imperfections such as grinding marks, burrs, peaks or valleys.  Webster’s definition reads “exhibiting properties with the same values when measured along axes in all directions.


Why is this smooth surface important?  Well, two of the main factors that affect a components lifespan are friction and wear, so by reducing these factors increases the parts life cycle and reduces cost.Sample parts being finished.


There are many different methods of Isotropic Finishing.  It can be done by blasting, lapping and electropolishing.  However, the most common methods are done via vibratory and centrifugal barrel processes.  At Latem Industries Limited, we offer both vibratory finishing and centrifugal barrel equipment to achieve the required results. 


Vibratory processes involve submerging a part into a bowl or u-tub, along with media, water and compounds.  Media can consist of ceramic, steel, plastic…even walnut shells or corn cob.  The friction created by the media rubbing against the parts, along with the chemical accelerants/compounds creates a smooth surface.


Centrifugal Barrel processes use the same medias as vibratory finishing.  The difference with this machine is it uses a rapid rotation/g forces to finish the parts with a smooth surface. 


Manufacturing processes inherently creates stress risers and vibratory finishing reduces or removes them.  Vibratory finishing and centrifugal barrel equipment both provide a repeatable process that leaves the component with a non-directional, uniform finish at competitive pricing.


Many industries benefit from Isotropic finishing.  Medical/dental, automotive, OEM, aerospace, firearm, military and agricultural are but a few.  Let Latem Industries help you with your Isotropic Finishing requirements. Contact us today for more infomration.

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